In the archaeological museum of Heraklion, you can see an amazing relic - Phaistos disc. The disk was found by Italian archaeologists at the beginning of the twentieth century - July 3, 1908 during archaeological excavations as part of the study of the ancient city of Fest on the island of Crete. The Phaistos disc was discovered by archaeologist Luigi Pernier during excavations of the palace complex, which was allegedly damaged during an earthquake that occurred as a result of a volcanic eruption in about 1628 BC. In one of the utility rooms of the destroyed palace complex, the Phaistos disc was discovered.
This artifact looks like this: it is a terracotta disk with hieroglyphs written in a language that is unknown to modern scientists, and all the time they can only make assumptions about what is encrypted on it. The diameter of the disk is about 160 mm, and the thickness is about 20. The characters on the disk are shown in 4-5 turns, each turn is divided into groups of several characters (minimum two, maximum seven). Hieroglyphs are depicted by pressing clay with the help of wooden or stone seals.
Many scientists immediately became interested in the find. The Italian archaeologist who discovered the artifact wrote an article about it in the journal Rendiconti della Reale Accademia dei Lincei, and a year later, another in the journal Ausonia.
The article published images of the disc, as well as a description of the find. The archaeologist presented his theories about where the artifact could come from, about its "age", mission, and so on. However, no specifics were given and at least attempts to explain what is encrypted on the disk.
The problem of deciphering the Phaistos disc was dealt with by such scientists as Eduard Meyer, Alessandro Della Seta, Arthur Evans and many others. Decryption, or rather decryption attempts, became even interested in Russia. Such a well-known papyrologist as Albert Beckström devoted a lot of time to this. However, all efforts were unsuccessful. It was not possible to clarify either whether the Phaistos disc is an artifact of Cretan culture or brought there by someone, or whether it contains important information and in what language they are recorded. Scientists even argue about in which direction the text should be read and what writing system this archaeological find represents - logographic, syllabic or alphabetic. On most of these issues at the moment there are different opinions, but all these are just versions that are supported by very dubious arguments.
Phaistos disc: origin
The first question that worries scientists is the origin of the disc. Most researchers speak out in favor of the fact that the disk was brought to the island of Crete by some ancient travelers. There is a version that the disk hit Crete from southwestern Anatolia. Other scholars are convinced that the disk is of Philistine origin. There is also a version that the birthplace of the disk is North Africa. The following facts speak in favor of this version: the clay from which the disk is made is not typical for the island of Crete, the hieroglyphs on the disk themselves do not correspond to any of the scripts known to scientists that are characteristic of the island of Crete. As for the "age" of the disc, there is also no consensus. The origin of the disk is attributed to the period of the XXI-XVII centuries. BC e., and to the period of the XVI-XII centuries. BC e. Conventionally, the date of origin of the disk is considered to be the XVII century. BC e. But this is a very approximate date. So to say, the "arithmetic mean" between the most common assumptions.
Attempts to decrypt Phaistos disc
Since the discovery of the Phaistos disc, many attempts have been made to decipher its contents. The first problem here was the direction of reading hieroglyphs. The most common version is the clockwise direction - from edge to center. The arguments in favor of this are as follows: as we approached the center of the disc, the person who inscribed tried to fit it more compactly: apparently, he did not calculate the space and, starting the inscription with a more free font, at the end he began to “divide”, trying to fit into the size of the disc . Also in favor of the clockwise direction is the fact that the images of people and animals are painted “face” to the right - in the direction of the reading direction - and this, according to most scientists, is characteristic of many cultures. Also, if you look closely, the prints of the hieroglyphs create deeper furrows on the left side, and this indicates their drawing with the left hand. When drawing hieroglyphs with the left hand, reading from right to left is logical. Based on these arguments, most scientists are of the opinion that the inscription should be read clockwise from the edge to the center of the disk.
The front side of the disk contains 123 characters, the reverse - 119. The total number of characters is 242. The variety of characters is also quite large: the text is represented by 45 images. The average repetition of each character is about five times. Based on these calculations, the most logical version seems to be that the type of spelling cannot be logographic, because with such a repetition of characters they cannot denote specific words. You can also reject the version of the alphabetical letter, as the variety of characters is too large. Therefore, most scholars agree that the inscription of the Phaistos disc is executed in the syllabic type of writing.
Based on the above theories, several attempts have been made to decipher the inscription on the Phaistos disc. However, nothing but a few words, plainly failed to understand. Hieroglyphs of the Phaistos disc depict people and animals, objects and actions. The disk contains such images as a head with feathers, a house, a jug, a wave, a helmet, a falcon, a ship, a bee, a cypress, a running man, a skin, a cat, a tree branch, a woman, and others. There are many versions about the meaning of these figures. For example, opinions were expressed that such drawings as “plumb”, “ax”, “woman” and others are related to the drawing “head with feathers” and in combination with it can indicate a person’s social status or occupation.
The most interesting version of the decryption of the disk is the version of Gennady Grinevich, an amateur linguist. In his opinion, the disc is nothing more than an artifact of the ancient Slavic culture, made in the style of the Pre-Slavic syllabic. By education, Gennady Grinevich is a geologist, but since 1975 he has been interested in linguistics, so his opinion in this area can be considered authoritative. Grinevich specializes in deciphering runic characters and Slavic syllable letters. Grinevich is also known for compiling a table of signs of the Proto-Slavic script. It is worth noting that in the scientific community Grinevich’s ideas, to put it mildly, do not have much weight. However, it is not surprising. Any revolutionary ideas are perceived by the majority with hostility.
Gennady Grinevich proposed the following decryption of the Phaistos disc:
"You will not find the sorrows of the past, however, the sorrows of the present are worse. In a new place you will feel them. All together. What did the Lord send you? A place in the world of God. Do not count the strife of the past. A place in the world of God that the Lord sent you, surround close Protect him day and night: no place - the will. For his power please. His children are still alive, knowing whose they are in this world of God.
We will live again. There will be a service to God. Everything will be in the past - we will forget who we are. Where you will be, the children will be, the fields will be, a wonderful life - we will forget who we are. There is a child - there are bonds - we will forget who is. What to consider, my God! Rysiyuniya enchants eyes. You won’t get anywhere from her, you won’t be cured. Not once will we hear: whose are you, trotters, what honors are for you, helmets in curls; talk about you. Not yet, we will be Her, in this world of God. "
The decryption text proposed by Grinevich is not taken seriously in scientific circles. Moreover, it was criticized even by neopagans and rodnovers. They recognized this version of decryption as false, provocative, and discrediting the pagan movement. Experience shows that unexpected hypotheses, which subsequently turn out to be as close to the truth as possible, always cause an extremely negative reaction from the public. In any case, the decryption option proposed by Grinevich is just a version that has the right to exist.
The general version of the content of the Fettky disk is as follows: the disk is a kind of symbol of power, which is issued to the rulers of the cities of the island of Crete. It shows the names of the rulers, and also lists the cities that they govern.
There are bolder versions regarding the contents of the disc. It is believed that the disk retains the knowledge of the people of Atlantis, and some researchers even tend to the version of the extraterrestrial origin of the disk and believe that it transmitted a message from extraterrestrial civilizations.
Among the less interesting are the claims of some scholars that the structure of the Phaistos disk resembles an ancient calendar, and the artifact that caused so much noise may just be a calendar of ancient civilization. There is also an opinion that the Phaistos Disc is a work of ancient astrologers who hieroglyphically captured their observations and research in astrology. There is a version that Phaistos disc is very similar to board games of the inhabitants of ancient Egypt, and the artifact can be a similar toy.
There are esoteric versions of reading the disc. Fans of Kabbalistic teachings see the names of Jehovah God and others on the disc. And decryption through the prism of Slavic culture claims that the words "Yav", "Nav", "Prav" and other terms characteristic of the ancient Slavic culture are represented on the disk by drawings.
To date, there is no single reading of the Phaistos disc, which would be confirmed by serious argument. As there is no consensus on what Phaistos disk is, it is one of many archaeological finds that are not of practical importance, or an ancient artifact that contains valuable information.